Friday, March 20, 2020

The Emotional Impact of the Civil War essays

The Emotional Impact of the Civil War essays The Civil War began July1861 when Union troops set out for Richmond, Virginia. They met Confederate forces soon after the left at a small stream in Virginia called Bull Run. The carnage that followed showed the nation that the war was anything but civil. In this war fathers fought sons, brothers fought brothers, and families fought themselves. This no doubt left emotional scars for everyone involved. An example of the emotional impact that the war had left on the soldiers, the families, and the nation is "The Slopes of War" by N.A Perez. This book is about the Summerhill family, which is going through the Civil War. Rebekah Summerhill has three family members who are fighting in the war. Buck Summerhill, Rebekah's brother, is accompanied by his friend Tully Willard. They are both privates in the Union Army. Custis and Mason Walker, Rebekah's cousins, are privates in the Confederate Army. During their childhood Rebekah, Buck, Custis, and Mason were close since the both grew up in the same area. Because of this Buck and Rebekah has the emotional dispute of fighting their own blood in a war. The purpose of this thesis is to show the emotional impact the Civil War had on the people involved. And how " The Slopes of War" portrayed it. I will show examples of this in a letter by Jno. D. Dameron, another letter by JN Bennet, and a song called, "The Prisoner's Hope" by George F. Root. The letter by Jno. D. Dameron is to his father. In it he writes about his father not writing to him, 'I had concluded that I could not write to any more until I had received a letter from home." (Dameron, letter by author, December 1862) This shows how homesick Dameron was. This is exactly how Buck felt during the first parts of the book, "We're getting close to home" (The Slopes of War, N.A. Perez, PG 3) The quote came from when Buck's squadron is heading towards Gettysburg, Buck's hometown. This I think shows that most of the soldiers, Union and Confed...

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Assassination of Robert Kennedy

Assassination of Robert Kennedy Shortly after midnight on June 5, 1968, presidential candidate, Robert F. Kennedy was shot three times after giving a speech at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, California. Robert Kennedy died of his wounds 26 hours later. Robert Kennedys assassination later led to Secret Service protection for all future major presidential candidates. The Assassination On June 4, 1968, popular Democratic Party presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy waited all day for the election results to come in from the Democratic primary in California. At 11:30 p.m., Kennedy, his wife Ethel, and the rest of his entourage left the Royal Suite of the Ambassador Hotel and headed downstairs to the ballroom, where approximately 1,800 supporters waited for him to give his victory speech. After giving his speech and ending with, Now on to Chicago, and lets win there! Kennedy turned and exited the ballroom through a side door that led to a kitchen pantry. Kennedy was using this pantry as a shortcut to reach the Colonial Room, where the press was waiting for him. As Kennedy traveled down this pantry corridor, which was filled with people trying to catch a glimpse of the potential future president, 24-year-old, Palestinian-born Sirhan Sirhan stepped up to Robert Kennedy and opened fire with his .22 pistol. While Sirhan was still firing, bodyguards and others tried to contain the gunman; however, Sirhan managed to fire all eight bullets before being subdued. Six people were hit. Robert Kennedy fell to the floor bleeding. Speechwriter Paul Shrade had been hit in the forehead. Seventeen-year-old Irwin Stroll was hit in the left leg. ABC director William Weisel was hit in the stomach. Reporter Ira Goldsteins hip was shattered. Artist Elizabeth Evans was also grazed on her forehead. However, most of the focus was on Kennedy. As he lay bleeding, Ethel rushed to his side and cradled his head. Busboy Juan Romero brought over some rosary beads and placed them in Kennedys hand. Kennedy, who had been seriously hurt and looked in pain, whispered, Is everybody all right? Dr. Stanley Abo quickly examined Kennedy at the scene and discovered a hole just below his right ear. Robert Kennedy Rushed to the Hospital An ambulance first took Robert Kennedy to the Central Receiving Hospital, which was located just 18 blocks away from the hotel. However, since Kennedy needed brain surgery, he was quickly transferred to Good Samaritan Hospital, arriving around 1 a.m. It was here that doctors discovered two additional bullet wounds, one under his right armpit and another just one-and-a-half inches lower. Kennedy underwent three-hour brain surgery, in which doctors removed bone and metal fragments. Over the next few hours, however, Kennedys condition continued to worsen. At 1:44 a.m. on June 6, 1968, Robert Kennedy died from his wounds at age 42. The nation was severely shocked at the news of yet another assassination of a major public figure. Robert Kennedy was the third major assassination of the decade, following the murders of Roberts brother, John F. Kennedy, five years earlier and of the great civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. just two months earlier. Robert Kennedy was buried near his brother, President John F. Kennedy, in Arlington Cemetery. What Happened to Sirhan Sirhan? Once police arrived at the Ambassador Hotel, Sirhan was escorted to police headquarters and questioned. At the time, his identity was unknown since he was carrying no identifying papers and refused to give his name. It wasnt until Sirhans brothers saw a picture of him on TV that the connection was made. It turned out that Sirhan Bishara Sirhan was born in Jerusalem in 1944 and emigrated to the U.S. with his parents and siblings when he was 12 years old. Sirhan eventually dropped out of community college and worked a number of odd jobs, including as a groom at the Santa Anita Racetrack. Once the police had identified their captive, they searched his house and found handwritten notebooks. Much of what they found written inside was incoherent, but amidst the rambling, they found RFK must die and My determination to eliminate RFK is becoming more [and] more of an unshakable obsession...[He] must be sacrificed for the cause of the poor exploited people. Sirhan was given a trial, in which he was tried for murder (of Kennedy) and assault with a deadly weapon (for the others that were shot). Although he pleaded not guilty, Sirhan Sirhan was found guilty on all counts and sentenced to death on April 23, 1969. Sirhan was never executed, however, because in 1972 California abolished the death penalty and commuted all death sentences to life in prison. Sirhan Sirhan remains imprisoned in Valley State Prison in Coalinga, California. Conspiracy Theories Just as in the assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr., many people believe there was also a conspiracy involved in the murder of Robert Kennedy. For Robert Kennedys assassination, there seem to be three main conspiracy theories that are based on inconsistencies found in the evidence against Sirhan Sirhan. Second Shooter- The first conspiracy involves the location of the fatal shot. Los Angeles Coroner Thomas Noguchi conducted the autopsy on Robert Kennedys body and discovered that not only had Kennedy died from the shot that entered just below and behind his right ear but that there were scorch marks around the entry wound.This meant that the shot must have come from behind Kennedy and that the muzzle of the gun must have been within an inch or so of Kennedys head when it was fired. By nearly all accounts, Sirhan had been in front of Kennedy and had never gotten closer than several feet. Could there have been a second shooter?The woman in a Polka-Dot Skirt- The second piece of evidence that easily lends itself to conspiracy theories is the multiple witnesses who saw a young woman wearing a polka-dot skirt running from the hotel with another man, exuberantly exclaiming, We shot Kennedy!Other witnesses say they saw a man who looked like Sirhan talking to a woman in a polka-dot skirt ear lier in the day. The police reports bypassed this evidence, believing that in the chaos that followed the shooting, it was more likely the couple was crying out, They shot Kennedy! Hypno-Programming- The third takes a bit more of a stretch of the imagination but is one advocated by Sirhans lawyers during pleas for parole. This theory claims that Sirhan was hypno-programmed (i.e. hypnotized and then told what to do by others). If so, this would explain why Sirhan asserts that he cant remember any of the events from that night.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

The effects of Strategic marketing on Business performance Dissertation

The effects of Strategic marketing on Business performance - Dissertation Example But this study will show that it is a much broader aspect with different factors acting to develop strategic marketing and which affects the overall performance of a business organization. Acknowledgements I am thankful to all my faculty members, colleagues and institution for giving me an opportunity to study the process of Strategic Management and analyze them in the context of real life scenario. I am also especially thankful to my supervisors for their timely advice, feedbacks and tips which aided me in improving upon my work and remain punctual in the agreed scheduled deliveries of dissertation chapters. Table of Contents Page No. Abstract 2 Acknowledgement 3 1. Introduction 6 1.1   Background 6 1.2   Aim and objective of research 11 1.2.1  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Aim of the study 11 1.2.2 Objective of the study 12 1.3 Scope of the study 14 1.4 Key Concepts 15 1.5 Structure of the thesis 20 2. Literature review 21 2.1   Strategic marketing 21 2.2   Marketing capabilit ies and assets 33 2.3 Business Performance Measurement 36 3. ... Discussion and Conclusion 54 6. References 58 7. List of Figures 7.1 Figure 1 20 7.2 Figure 2 21 7.3 Figure 3 27 7.4 Figure 4 28 7.5 Figure 5 31 7.6 Figure 6 32 7.7 Figure 7 33 7.8 Figure 8 35 7.9 Figure 9 38 7.10 Figure 10 56 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background Marketing is one of the most significant factors of the business and in the book Practice of Management Drucker wrote, â€Å"There is only valid definition of business purpose to create a customer†¦[Therefore], any business enterprise has two -- and only these two – basic functions: marketing and innovation. They are the entrepreneurial functions. Marketing is the distinguishing, the unique function of the business.† (Silk, 2006, p.vii) So it is evident, for outperforming competition and taking accurate marketing decision, every company requires good marketing knowledge. An organization’s product positioning and services depend on the performance and implementation of intellect and good strategic plans. This can be explained simply by the statement about marketing management provided by Moore and Pareek (2009, p.7) â€Å"in business, marketing has two aims. The first is to attract new customers by highlighting the potential value of a good service. Getting customers is an active process, meaning the business must solicit the customer; rarely do customers come to business. The second aim is to retain customers by continually meeting and surpassing the customer’s satisfaction with the products.† (Moore & Pareek, 2009, pp.7-8) In the present era, market has become highly competitive. In this competitive market, a strategy is needed to offer product or service which will do better than the competition. In this context Kenechi

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Explain How Far Wilfred Owen Challenges the Notion that it is Sweet Essay

Explain How Far Wilfred Owen Challenges the Notion that it is Sweet and Noble to Die For Your Country Using The Poems Dulce et - Essay Example Even after a war ends the violent and troubling memories keep haunting a soldier’s mind. Sometimes when the soldier becomes physically disabled he is unable to carry out the normal activities of life and to such a man what remains are only the memories with which he has to live throughout. When the young children in their schools are told how noble it is to fight for one’s land and people, it might sound really righteous but the truths which unfold as one takes a closer look at the consequences of war especially on the lives of those noble doers, one is bound to be discouraged and all motivations in favor of warfare seem meaningless in front of sheer humanity. He draws out visual images in some of his poems, where the physical, and mental suffering of the troops are vividly described. In the war poems, ‘Dulce et Decorum Est’ and ‘Disabled’ he challenges the notion that dying for one’s country is sweet and noble. The poem ‘Dulce et Decorum Est’ describes just another day in the World War I when the soldiers are marching towards their place of rest but at that very moment gas bombs begin to drop around them. They hurry for their masks and weapons but some of the ravaged bodies fail to save themselves from the attack. The author writes in a personal tone and tells the readers what he witnesses as vividly as possible with frequent use of similes –â€Å"But someone still was yelling out and stumbling,/ And flound'ring like a man in fire or lime† (Owen, line9). He focuses the description now on a single person who dies in the attack and this vision continuously haunts him in his dreams later on. He gradually shifts from first person to third person and then to second person in his address. Towards the end the poet conveys to the people at home their experience of violence and distress and wishes that they could witness the same. At the very beginning he stressed upon the very appearance of the people marching towards their place of rest. He does not address the men as soldiers or warriors; rather he compares them to old beggars and hags. He even uses the metaphoric comparison between their walk and the term ‘cursed’ which he uses to describe the miserable conditions as they march through the muddle trenches. The experience seemed to have them under some kind of a curse. The poet at times uses the technique of creating a caesura or a pause in a line of the poem in order to signify the realism precisely. The language is brief and curt as he mentions ‘Men marched asleep’ (Owen,line4). This sentence makes the men look like ghost figures walking in the dark. They are so exhausted that they almost are falling asleep. The poet uses alliterations I the form of repeated words beginning with ‘l’ – â€Å"Many had lost their boots/But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame; all blind† (Owen, line4). The words indicate they were cover ed in blood and therefore the war has enveloped their physical and mental forms. The idea here is to put forth the dragging effect on the readers just as the fatigued soldiers dragged themselves towards the tent. He changes drastically the motion by using brief lines: â€Å"Five-nines/that dropped behind. Gas!/Gas! Quick boys!†(Owen, line7), which generates the effect of fast action amidst the slow movements. Suddenly there seems to be a rush for safety. The fear struck cries and bombs falling all around leads to the environment, which brings on merciless deaths that render a stomach

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Analysis of Tescos Online Marketing Strategy

Analysis of Tescos Online Marketing Strategy The Importance of online shopping in todays modern era is a fact that all organizations realize and amalgamate in their systems. The fast attractive, handy and approachable nature of online shopping is a revelation and must be said an incredible beginning to the innovations in the modern days. People can find what they need easily while surfing from the convenience of their homes, and they can search for varieties as well as look for desirable discounts related to different products. However, it is important to realize that there are certain cons related with the idea of internet shopping as some people still believe that internet shopping is more risky than traditional shopping due to the lack of opportunity to physically examine the product and the lack of personal contact. Goldsmith and Goldsmith (2002); Phau Poon (2000). The immensity of the potential of the Internet in business transactions is undeniable in the modern age (Cheung and Lee, 2006). However, like all other technology, the pros and cons of Internet as a business medium are also widely accepted by consumers as well as marketers, as while buyers can shop literally around the clock they may also have to deal with enormous amounts of unwanted information about products (Huang, Chung and Chen, 2003). Hence, the need to critically examine the viability of this medium is crucially important for founding basis of future business environment (Clewley, Chen and Liu, 2009). Indeed the most interesting feature of this new dimension of marketing and strategy-building is the behaviour of the consumers, which shows that online shopping the most popular purpose of Internet usage among common consumers (Forsythe and Shi, 2003). This has also increased scope of research on the subject of strategies used by firms in retaining customers through the Internet (Reibstein, 2002; Jiang and Rosenbloom, 2005), which are now much important (Ellis-Chadwick, Doherty and Anastasakis, 2007). Aim and Scope of the Research: The focus and scope of this research will revolve around Tesco which is one of the UKs retailing giants and enjoys a huge presence in the UK due to its wide scope network of retailing activities. This research aims at identifying and highlighting the marketing strategy of Tesco and the way it can cope with the industry norms and standards. The focus of the marketing strategy will be on the e marketing or digital marketing framework applicable in the industry and how Tesco can use the internet to market and sell its product along with widespread promotional campaigns and identification of the buying behaviours. It is important to realize that Tesco being a huge retail industry in the United Kingdom has a huge responsibility on its shoulder in order to cater to the needs of its customers who are the key stakeholders in Tescos marketing strategies. SMART Objectives: Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Timed The Aim of this research shall be relevant to the SMART objectives OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH: The Primary objective is to make the consumers of the Tesco products beware of the online marketing tool. Another objective is to measure the performance of the online profiling through internet surveys and consumers analysis of the products. Make efforts to increase the internet consumption through online marketing tools and advertising through a wide range of media players. Making a timely and budgeted forecasts of the efforts needed in internet marketing and the tools that are required for the effective internet marketing. Making realistic goals related to the efficiency of the marketing strategies and their effectiveness in bringing the internet to the consumers door step. Research Questions: Following are the proposed research questions for the study: How has IT helped Tesco in strategic customer retention over the years? What are the key determinants of success for Tescos online marketing strategy? What are the fundamental elements of the e-marketing strategy of Tesco? What are the future prospects of online marketing for Tesco? Primary Research and Data Analysis: The primary research will be done through interviews and questionnaires that will focus on how the consumers think about the online shopping and what motivates and influences them to shop online from Tesco.com. The data analysis will be done in order to gain influential insights into the marketing strategies of Tesco and online marketing strategies and what should be done to impact the international arena. Realizations of the buying behaviours is always crucial when doing the primary research as we will study in this literature that buying behaviours varies with respect to the demographics as well as it influences the external environment. This is also very significant due to the marketability of the tesco products as well as knowing that some people are not particularly confident while buying online while others prefer to buy online. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW Tesco being the leading food retailers in the United Kingdom and Ireland has its branches all over the UK. The company excels in the provision of quality food items and other retail households. The companys annual online sales exceeded an overwhelming $ 5 billion where as Tesco.com is known as the worlds largest online grocer. The customer base that is attracted by Tesco is a little less than 1 million and more than 250,000 orders that are being completed each week. The company has a very effective and integrated supply chain that consists of 1900 vans that operate and approx. 300 stores and 9000 pickers. The company dominated in the offline and online grocery market and has looked for other areas that need expansion, with a market share of UK retailing being 12.5%. The main competitor of tesco in the retail industry network is Asda, Morrisons, and Sainsbury. The Asda , that is owned by the US corporation Wall Mart since the year 1999 is the only super market that has been a major co mpetitor for Tesco. Wall Mart being the biggest food chain in the world has the annual sales that is eight times that of tesco, where as the clothing firm own by ASDA known as George provides a diverse range of clothing in the UK and there are plans for the company to takeover Matalan, i.e. the giant clothing and home furnishing store. The other major competitors to Tesco are Sainsbury that used to be the UK s biggest grocer until 1995, when Tesco emerged as the leading grocer. However, despite the drastic declines in the performances of Sainsbury it is known that ASDAs share being 16.6% compared to Sainsburys 16.22% i.e. not far behind. However, there are seemingly diverse growth opportunities for Tesco in the retail industry as Tesco believes that if there is any market share left there is also a potential for growth and expansion. In order to have a detailed and proper understanding of the online marketing policy as an analyst or a practitioner it is important to have a detailed study on the choices made by the organizations and also have an understanding of their behaviours. Shapiro, J.C hoque,K Keesler, I Richardson, R (2008). There are also some challenges faced by the company in online selling i.e. how to succeed without having huge expenses. The course of this literature will focus primarily on the online marketing strategies for Tesco, but it is foremost and important to discuss the technological drivers of change in the process. This is a fact that the UK internet penetration was almost 64% and the Irelands internet penetration was almost 51% , however, these results make very clear statements for new an d emerging online shopping markets. The company also relishes creating a valuable and sustainable supply chain, however, the company didnt have to change its supply chain due to its new strategy, but there was a need for more to be done in the area of online marketing. Tesco also defined and redefined the customer needs and also expanded the range of products being offered online and fulfilment of the needs. This new strategy also helped tesco immensely in the expansion of the product line without making any drastic changes. 2.1 Digital Marketing: Tesco can use digital marketing with good effect to add value to the marketing strategies and promotional benefits. Although the company has a huge global presence but the growing age of the internet as a medium can be used much more effectively by the company. They can e-market and launch their upcoming products and sell it with a bigger and better effect. They must also look at the competitors digital marketing strategies and analyse the pros and cons of e marketing as a tool. The global companies like ASDA, Sainsbury and Morrison are competitors of Tesco and they have a global presence as they use digital marketing with huge effect. 2.2 Creative Marketing: Marketing itself is a very creative and innovative field with various applications and implications. However, creative marketing is something different and innovative than any other type of marketing. Tesco being a global brand has a big brand name as well as a brand image. To maintain this company must influence its marketing team to be creative and innovative by bringing various dimensions into the marketing strategies. Creativity will bring more enhancements and attractiveness into the diverse range of products that the company deals in. They can also bring competition in creativity by selling best ideas and rewarding those ideas accordingly. Creativity always influences the customer and selling strategies always lay a desirable impact on the sales and productivity of any firm. This literature will discuss how digital marketing and creative marketing aspects can be used by Tesco to influence the buying behaviour of their customers and target a huge audience. Online marketing is the best way to attract customers and have efficient and effective marketing strategies that will be sustainable for the companys growth in future. Its important to realize that marketing is a very tactical and at the same time somewhat technical approach to bringing customers closer to the brand and creating a brand image as well as an influence in the eyes of the key stakeholders i.e. the consumers. Hence it is critical to understand the consumer behaviour and how the customers influences are affected by the change in the companys strategy. A customers loyalty is significant to achieve milestones and targets that are influenced by goals and agendas that are critical in the longer run and demonstrates a significant thinking of the behavioural aspects of the consumers. The Importance of Brand Identity: Brand identity is one of the crucial elements in the value that a brand creates in terms of its marketability, accessibility, and competitiveness. Brand identity is a firms most valued assets that it can capitalize on to have profits for long periods as an identity is the most basic investment that a company makes to establish its brand image. A brand identity has a lot to do with the online marketing and promotional aspects of the company like the calibre and stature of Tesco. Attracting customers towards a specific brand is not the only way a company can take advantage of its brand image; it has also to focus on a strong employers brand. In totality it is important to realize that companies always capitalize on their initial marketing strategies, promotional campaigns and investments they make in their brand. Branding is a marketing strategy for creating, nurturing and even fostering the development of relevant and appropriate brand value propositions Abimbola, T Kocak, A(2007). Fig 1: Brand Image Model Consumer Behaviour: The consumer behaviour is the relation with the consumers responsiveness and their attitudes. It has to do with the consumers reaction to the different products that are being launched in the retail industry (Tesco) and the products that are more famous amongst the consumers. There is a relation to the demographics of the environment i.e. the composition of the age, sex, age groups, location and cultural diversities. Companies these days have become more and more feedback oriented. Lerman, D (2006) with the help of customer satisfaction surveys and questionnaires. Consumers perceptions may differ from loyalty because of ignorance or lack of salience of origin. Consumer behaviour is basically the identification of consumers attitude towards a specific brand and as according to MacInnis, H(2007) attitudes are important because they guide our thoughts i.e. the cognitive function, influence our feelings, i.e. the emotional intelligence and also affect our behaviour i.e. the cognitive function. Whatever the consumers of a certain product or influencing class decides which ads to read, whom to talk to, where to shop and where to eat is all based on the attitudes and their personal likings. This fact is similar in the case scenario of the all important retail industry where the trust factor is important as people most often dont trust the least known or not well known brands in the industry. Online marketing can play a very significant role regards to the key aspects concerned with consumer behaviour and consumer dynamics and it is critical to realize how the consumers think of a specific brand and its branding significance related to the industr y. Market Segmentation: Market segmentation is the defining and sub dividing a large common that into segments that are clearly identified and has similar requirements, and demand characteristics. These segmentations are made according to the diversities in the culture and the geographical norms. The four factors that has the most effects on the market are the clear identification of the segments, a measure of its effective size, accessibility through promotional efforts and appropriateness to the policies and the resources of the firm. The four basic market segmentation strategies are based on behavioural, demographic, psychographic and the geographical differences. Behavioural Intentions Behavioural intentions have a huge amount of significance regards to the behaviours of customers in terms of a brands image and its significance. Attribution theory is concerned with all the aspects of assigning casual inferences and how these particular interpretations influence behaviours. Swanson, S.R Davis, J.C(2003). The behavioural approach has a generalized focus on the market share, brand allegiance, exclusive purchase, and elasticity and/ or price until switching. Both the behavioural and the attitudinal approaches are have been given heavy criticism while the attitudinal approach has focused laid on the attitudes , the loyal and the disloyal acts , the brand preference of the consumers and the probability of purchase. White, C Yu, Y.T(2005). In the paradigm of the online marketing tools it is desirable and most significant to realize that how the behaviours and marketability aspects of the Tesco online products are grasped, evaluated and monitored by the consumers. Customer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction holds vitality regards to the branding strategies as customers are the end users of a product. Customer satisfaction can be achieved through absolute customer focus and customer retention that can only be achieved if the needs of the customers are catered keeping in mind the productivity and brand loyalty aspects. According to Caruana, A(2002) the expectancy/ disconfirmation in the process theory provides a vast amount of satisfaction studies that rely heavily on expectations, performance ,disconfirmation and satisfaction. Fig 2: Customer Satisfaction model The above model for customer satisfaction shows the customer as the mediator between the service quality and the service loyalty aspects that are involved in a customer and their relationship with a company. Customer acts as a backbone to the branding strategies of a company as the customer are the opinion makers regards to brand significance and its vulnerability in a market.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Britain of evacuation in World War Two Essay

During the course of World War Two, many people were evacuated, not just children. There were many differing reactions to evacuation. The reaction would depend on the experience you had. Reactions would also change over time during the war and even after the war had finished. One set of people affected by Evacuation was the Children. Many children did not know where they were going and therefore experienced feelings of fear and anger. The children disliked being separated from their parents but put on brave faces so not worry their families. When the children arrived at their destination, they were taken to school halls of town meeting places where the were chosen by their â€Å"foster† families, which they disliked because often they were split from their sisters and brothers. If they had negative attitudes, they very often did not settle quickly like those who had positive attitudes and would see their stay as a holiday. If an evacuee had a positive experience, they would have pleasant memories of being treated as one of the family. Evacuation was described as â€Å"no better than a ‘paedophile’s charter’ † as it would have been easier to abuse children away from home. However, in a study of 450 ex-evacuees, only 12% of them had bad experiences. Michael Caine remembers being evacuated with his brother Clarence. He said † My brother used to went the bed when he was nervous. My foster mother could not figure out who it was so she beat both of us, and Clarence became more nervous and wet the bed more. † However, not all experiences were bad. On ex-evacuees remembers being given clothes when he was evacuated. A child’s reaction to evacuation would depend on their experiences while in care. Another set of people who were affected by evacuation was the children’s parents. Most parents were reluctant to send their children away but agreed because of propaganda. Not all parents sent their children away though. Some parents thought that their children were safe in their family home. However, most parents brought their children home due to the ‘phoney ‘ war. But the children were evacuated again when the Blitz happened, although the scale of evacuation was not as large as the first wave in September 1939. Thanks to the Blitz, many parents changed their opinions on evacuation, now agreeing that it was probably best for their children.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Mesoamerica Cultural Timeline

This Mesoamerica timeline is built on the standard periodization used in Mesoamerican archaeology and upon which specialists generally agree. The term Mesoamerica literally means Middle America and it typically refers to the geographic region between the southern border of the United States to the Isthmus of Panama, including Mexico and Central America. However, Mesoamerica was and is dynamic, and never a single unified block of cultures and styles. Different regions had different chronologies, and regional terminologies exist and are touched upon in their specific areas below. Archaeological sites listed below are examples for each period, a handful of the many more that could be listed, and they often were inhabited across time periods. Hunter-Gatherer Periods Preclovis Period (?25,000–10,000 BCE): There are a handful of sites in Mesoamerica that are tentatively associated with the broad-scale hunter-gatherers known as Pre-Clovis, but they are all problematic and none appear to meet enough criteria to consider them unequivocally valid. Pre-Clovis lifeways are thought to have been based on broad-based hunter-forager-fisher strategies. Possible preclovis sites include Valsequillo, Tlapacoya, El Cedral, El Bosque, Loltun Cave. Paleoindian Period (ca 10,000–7000 BCE): The first fully-attested human inhabitants of Mesoamerica were hunter-gatherer groups belonging to the Clovis period. Clovis points and related points found throughout Mesoamerica are generally associated with big game hunting. A handful of sites also include fish-tail points such as Fells Cave points, a type found more commonly in South American Paleoindian sites. Paleoindian sites in Mesoamerica include El Fin del Mundo, Santa Isabel Iztapan, Guilà ¡ Naquitz, Los Grifos, Cueva del Diablo. Archaic Period (7000–2500 BCE):. After the extinction of large-bodied mammals, many new technologies were invented, including maize domestication, developed by Archaic hunter-gatherers by 6000 BCE. Other innovative strategies included the construction of durable buildings such as pit houses, intensive techniques of cultivation and resource exploitation, new industries including ceramics, weaving, storage, and prismatic blades. The first sedentism appears about the same time as maize, and over time more and more people gave up mobile hunter-gatherer life for a village life and agriculture. People made smaller and more refined stone tools, and on the coasts, began to rely more on marine resources. Sites include Coxcatlà ¡n, Guilà ¡ Naquitz, Gheo Shih, Chantuto, Santa Marta cave, and Pulltrouser Swamp. Pre-Classic / Formative Periods The Pre-Classic or Formative period is so named because it was originally thought to be when the basic characteristics of the classic civilizations such as the Maya began to form. The major innovation was the shift to permanent sedentism and village life based on horticulture and full-time agriculture. This period also saw the first theocratic village societies, fertility cults, economic specialization, long-distance exchange, ancestor worship, and social stratification. The period also saw the development of three distinct areas: central Mesoamerica where village farming arose in the coastal and highland areas; Aridamerica to the north, where traditional hunter-forager ways persisted; and the Intermediate area to the southeast, where Chibchan speakers kept loose ties to South American cultures. Early Preclassic/Early Formative Period (2500–900 BCE): The major innovations of the Early Formative period include the increase in pottery use, transition from village life to a more complex social and political organization, and elaborate architecture. Early Preclassic sites include those in Oaxaca (San Josà © Mogote; Chiapas: Paso de la Amada, Chiapa de Corzo), Central Mexico (Tlatilco, Chalcatzingo), Olmec area ( San Lorenzo), Western Mexico (El Opeà ±o), Maya area (Nakbà ©, Cerros), and Southeastern Mesoamerica (Usulutà ¡n). Middle Preclassic/Middle Formative Period (900–300 BCE): Increasing social inequalities is a hallmark of the Middle Formative, with elite groups having a closer connection to the wider distribution of luxury items, as well as the ability to finance public architecture and stone monuments such as ball courts, palaces, sweat baths, permanent irrigation systems, and tombs. Essential and recognizable pan-Mesoamerican elements began during this period, such as bird-serpents and controlled marketplaces; and murals, monuments, and portable art speak to political and social changes. Middle Preclassic sites include those in the Olmec area (La Venta, Tres Zapotes), Central Mexico (Tlatilco, Cuicuilco), Oaxaca (Monte Alban), Chiapas (Chiapa de Corzo, Izapa), Maya area (Nakbà ©, Mirador, Uaxactun, Kaminaljuyu, Copan), West Mexico (El Opeà ±o, Capacha), Southeastern Mesoamerica (Usulutà ¡n). Late Preclassic/Late Formative Period (300 BCE–200/250 CE): This period saw an enormous population increase along with the emergence of regional centers and the rise of regional state societies. In the Maya area, this period is marked by the construction of massive architecture decorated with giant stucco masks; the Olmec may have had three or more city-states at its maximum. The Late Preclassic also saw the first evidence of a particular pan-Mesoamerican view of the universe as a quadripartite, multi-layered cosmos, with shared creation myths and a pantheon of deities. Examples of Late Preclassic sites include those in Oaxaca (Monte Alban), Central Mexico (Cuicuilco, Teotihuacan), in the Maya area (Mirador, Abaj Takalik, Kaminaljuyà º, Calakmul, Tikal, Uaxactun, Lamanai, Cerros), in Chiapas (Chiapa de Corzo, Izapa), in Western Mexico (El Opeà ±o), and in Southeastern Mesoamerica (Usulutà ¡n). Classic Period During the Classic period in Mesoamerica, complex societies increased dramatically and split into a large number of polities that varied greatly in scale, population, and complexity; all of them were agrarian and tied into the regional exchange networks. The simplest were located in the Maya lowlands, where city-states were organized on a feudal basis, with political control involving a complex system of interrelationships between royal families. Monte Alban was at the center of a conquest state that dominated most of the southern highlands of Mexico, organized around an emerging and vital craft production and distribution system. The Gulf Coast region was organized in about the same fashion, based on the long-distance exchange of obsidian. Teotihuacan was the largest and most complex of the regional powers, with a population of between 125,000 to 150,000, dominating the central region, and maintaining a palace-centric social structure. Early Classic Period (200/250–600 CE): The early Classic saw the apogee of Teotihuacan in the valley of Mexico, one of the largest metropolis of the ancient world. Regional centers began to diffuse outward, along with widespread Teotihuacan-Maya political and economic connections, and centralized authority. In the Maya area, this period saw the erection of stone monuments (called stelae) with inscriptions about kings lives and events. Early Classic sites are in Central Mexico (Teotihuacan, Cholula), the Maya area (Tikal, Uaxactun, Calakmul, Copan, Kaminaljuyu, Naranjo, Palenque, Caracol), Zapotec region (Monte Alban), and western Mexico (Teuchitlà ¡n). Late Classic (600–800/900 CE): The beginning of this period is characterized by the ca. 700 CE collapse of Teotihuacan in Central Mexico and the political fragmentation and high competition among many Maya sites. The end of this period saw the disintegration of political networks and a sharp decline in population levels in the southern Maya lowlands by about 900 CE. Far from a total collapse, however, many centers in the northern Maya lowlands and other areas of Mesoamerica continued to flourish afterward. Late Classic sites include the Gulf Coast (El Tajin), the Maya area (Tikal, Palenque, Toninà ¡, Dos Pilas, Uxmal, Yaxchilà ¡n, Piedras Negras, Quiriguà ¡, Copan), Oaxaca (Monte Alban), Central Mexico (Cholula). Terminal Classic (as it is called in the Maya area) or Epiclassic (in central Mexico) (650/700–1000 CE): This period attested a political reorganization in the Maya lowlands with a new prominence of the Northern Lowland of northern Yucatan. New architectural styles show evidence of a strong economic and ideological connections between central Mexico and northern Maya Lowlands. Important Terminal Classic sites are in Central Mexico (Cacaxtla, Xochicalco, Tula), the Maya area (Seibal, Lamanai, Uxmal, Chichen Itzà ¡, Sayil), the Gulf Coast (El Tajin). Postclassic The Postclassic Period is that period roughly between the fall of the Classic period cultures and the Spanish conquest. The Classic period saw larger states and empires replaced by small polities of a central town or city and its hinterland, ruled by kings and a small hereditary elite based at palaces, a marketplace, and one or more temples. Early Postclassic (900/1000–1250): The Early Postclassic saw an intensification of trade and strong cultural connections between the northern Maya area and Central Mexico. There was also a flourishing of a constellation of small competing kingdoms, that competition expressed by warfare-related themes in arts. Some scholars refer to the Early Postclassic as the Toltec period, because one likely dominant kingdom was based at Tula. Sites are located in Central Mexico (Tula, Cholula), Maya area (Tulum, Chichen Itzà ¡, Mayapan, Ek Balam), Oaxaca (Tilantongo, Tututepec, Zaachila), and the Gulf Coast (El Tajin). Late Postclassic (1250–1521): The Late Postclassic period is traditionally bracketed by the emergence of the Aztec/Mexica empire and its destruction by the Spanish conquest. The period saw increased militarization of competing empires across Mesoamerica, most of which fell to and became tributary states of the Aztecs, with the exception of the Tarascans/Purà ©pecha of Western Mexico. Sites in Central Mexico are (Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Cholula, Tepoztlan), in the Gulf Coast (Cempoala), in Oaxaca (Yagul, Mitla), in the Maya region (Mayapan, Tayasal, Utatlan, Mixco Viejo), and in West Mexico (Tzintzuntzan). Colonial Period 1521–1821 The Colonial period began with the fall of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan and the surrender of Cuauhtemoc to Hernan Cortes in 1521; and the fall of central America including the Kiche Maya to Pedro de Alvardo in 1524. Mesoamerica was now administered as a Spanish colony. The pre-European Mesoamerican cultures sustained a huge blow with the invasion and conquest of Mesoamerica by Spaniards in the early 16th century. The conquistadors and their religious community of friars brought new political, economic, and religious institutions and new technologies including the introduction of European plants and animals. Diseases were also introduced, diseases that decimated some populations and transformed all of the societies. But in Hispania, some pre-Columbian cultural traits were retained and others modified, many introduced traits were adopted and adapted to fit into existing and sustained native cultures. The Colonial period ended when after more than 10 years of armed struggle, the Creoles (Spaniards born in the Americas) declared independence from Spain. Sources Carmack, Robert M. Janine L. Gasco, and Gary H. Gossen. The Legacy of Mesoamerica: History and Culture of a Native American Civilization. Janine L. Gasco, Gary H. Gossen, et al., 1st Edition, Prentice-Hall, August 9, 1995. Carrasco, David (Editor). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures. Hardcover. Oxford Univ Pr (Sd), November 2000. Evans, Susan Toby (Editor). Archaeology of Ancient Mexico and Central America: An Encyclopedia. Special -Reference, David L. Webster (Editor), 1st Edition, Kindle Edition, Routledge, November 27, 2000. Manzanilla, Linda. Historia antigua de Mexico. Vol. 1: El Mexico antiguo, sus areas culturales, los origenes y el horizonte Preclasico. Leonardo Lopez Lujan, Spanish Edition, Second edition, Paperback, Miguel Angel Porrua, July 1, 2000. Nichols, Deborah L. The Oxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology. Oxford Handbooks, Christopher A. Pool, Reprint Edition, Oxford University Press, June 1, 2016.